This problem occurs cause the Google Chrome uninstaller doesn't remove some registry values added by him.

If you want do the manual steps to fix this problem, just run the following commands (Open Commando prompt as administrador on Windows Vista or Windows 7)

REG ADD HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Classes\.htm /ve /d htmlfile /f
REG ADD HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Classes\.html /ve /d htmlfile /f
REG ADD HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Classes\.shtml /ve /d htmlfile /f
REG ADD HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Classes\.xht /ve /d htmlfile /f
REG ADD HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Classes\.xhtml /ve /d htmlfile /f

After this just make your Internet Explorer the Default browser.

Referernce: http://answers.microsoft.com/en-us/office/forum/office_2007-outlook/cant-open-any-hyperlinks-this-operation-has-been/8815ad6c-0f44-477a-9ffa-beb98109b5a6